Bruner states in “Symbols and Texts as Tools of Intellect” that there are three ways to acquire knowledge. The first is through experience, in which you learn about the process and the experience in addition to the experiences place in the world. The second way to learn is to vicariously experience through observing another person. The final and least effective way to gain knowledge is through interpretation of texts and spoken word. This is ineffective because people interpret language symbols in unique ways and it is difficult for the message the speaker is trying to get across to be interpreted accurately by the listener. According to Bruner, this is the problem of transfer.

Failure to communicate


About the Authors: Karen Fisher and Kevin Hopkins, are BTMM students at Temple University.


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  1. Pingback: Hands-On, Minds On! « New Media Literacies at Temple University

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